Prof. Mirosława Grabowska from the Institute of Sociology at the University of Warsaw, director of the opinion polling center CBOS, discusses the attitudes of young people towards politics and democracy in the context of their hopes and expectations

Looking for a needle in a haystack? That’s a piece of cake in comparison with scouring through thousands of images packed with hundreds of millions of stars, trying to spot a few hundred unique objects which very much resemble stars but are actually quite a different type of object. But let’s start from the beginning: why are we searching for quasars by looking at the Magellanic Clouds in the first place?

Prof. Jerzy Zdanowski is a historian and political scientist specializing in the Middle East, working at the Department of Islamic Civilization at the PAS Institute of Mediterranean and Oriental Cultures. We talk to him about differences between faiths, the roots of radicalization of Islam, and accepting refugees from Arab states

Termites, wasps, bees, certain aphids, thrips, beetles… and of course ants. Some species of the rich and diverse world of insects, rather than living alone, have instead developed communities of various kinds. But should a group of such eusocial insects, ranging in size from a few hundreds to many millions of individuals, still be considered a set of distinct individuals, or rather a kind of superorganism?

Individual differences among humans are a well-known and well-studied phenomenon. Do they also occur in animals?

Every scientific field is centered around a few core concepts, serving as the foundation for the formulation of basic laws and scientific theories. In biology, these include such concepts as “individual” and “species” – which may seem simple, but only deceptively so

Sahelanthropus, Orrorin tugenensis, Ardipithecus kaddaba, Australopithecus, Paranthropus and finally Homo. Humans have traveled quite a long evolutionary path. Only one of these many species has managed to survive to the present day: Homo sapiens

Most of us have had the opportunity to observe the sky and see the fleeting luminous streaks known as meteors. Such spectacles are caused by fragments of celestial bodies (meteoroids) entering the atmosphere at high speed. Some of them manage to reach the surface. How can these alien objects be told apart from Earth rocks and anthropogenic materials?

Most Poles declare that we should take in labor immigrants, regardless of whether they are ethnically and culturally similar to us. But how do these declarations translate into practice?

We talk to Dr. Ewelina Ciecierska, winner of the Maria Skłodowska-Curie award, about prize-winning nanofillers, the value of working in a group, and the presence of women in a traditionally male-dominated world

“We should not have any inferiority complex – we contribute a lot of novelties to world science and are interesting as an important EU country,” says Prof. Jerzy Duszyński, President of the Polish Academy of Sciences

The permafrost that was discovered beneath the northeastern Polish village of Udryń in 2010 is a relict of the climatic conditions that prevailed across a sizeable share of the northern hemisphere back in the Pleistocene. The permafrost was then probably quite thick, which is why we can now detect remnants of it deep within the Earth (357 meters below ground). But how has it managed to survive to this very day?

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