Pathetic and grotesque, or worthy of respect? Valued for their wisdom and experience, or of no use to anyone? Able to assist the young, or only hampering their development? How are older people portrayed in the Polish literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries?

For every highest spiritual matter, there is a corresponding key on the keyboard of the body. Zofia Nałkowska, “Count Emil”

The ways the Romani have been depicted in European literature are projections of various fears, phobias, and prejudices against strangers, while at the same time expressing yearnings for the idealistic side of life – freedom, happiness, and disregard for borders


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